White Papers


Top Five Things You Need to Know Before Building or Upgrading Your Cloud Infrastructure PDF
Over the last several years, the need for bandwidth has grown dramatically across all types of users. Some of the fastest growth is occurring between data centers and between customer sites (e.g., HQ, point-of-presence or co-location site) to data centers and/or Internet Exchange (IX) facilities and is heavily driven by the growth in both public and private Cloud use. Enterprises whose data center interconnection capacity needs are approaching or exceeding 100 Gb/s today have many options to help lower cost and drive scale.
  • A Software Defined Network Architecture for Transport Networks PDF
    Software Defined Networking (SDN) has had a successful journey from experimental university networks to production deployments, simplifying networks at IP/Ethernet layers within the data center. It is now extending its benefits into the wide area network (WAN) at both the packet layer and the transport layer. SDN enables centralized and programmatic control of the underlying packet and transport layers to provide increased automation to reduce OpEx, optimize the network to reduce CapEx, and deliver new services to increase revenues and improve customer retention. With the proper architecture and implementation, SDN can also support service providers who want to transform to a DevOps model for rapid service creation and deployment for a better competitive posture in the marketplace.
  • The Evolution of Next-Gen Optical Networks PDF
    Cable operators have made significant progress in migrating from 10 Gb/s optical transport waves to 100 Gb/s waves in their core networks. 100G waves allow 8 Tb/s or more of capacity to be carried on traditional fiber using the standard 50 GHz C-Band ITU-T G.694.1 grid. However, bandwidth growth projections already indicate that 8 Tb/s of capacity per fiber will be insufficient in the near future and that the operational costs of deploying so much capacity in 100G increments can be high. To address the emerging capacity requirements and to achieve better operational efficiency, next generation optical networks will utilize a flexible grid channel plan (variable-width optical super-channels) and terabit scale super-channels implemented with the appropriate modulation, depending on reach requirements, and incorporating software controlled optical switching functions.
  • The New Packet-Optical Core for a Software-driven World PDF
    Over the past decade, IT infrastructure has seen a dramatic shift from local resources to those located in a third-party facility. Whether we receive them at home or on our mobile phones, service providers offer hardware-free services that reside somewhere on the network, including storage of our personal files, streaming of personal and commercial video and, of course, photo albums and email. The acceleration of cloud adoption, as evidenced by the tremendous growth of Infrastructure, Platform & Software-as-a-Service (IaaS, PaaS and SaaS) offerings among technology providers, is having a profound impact on IT and network architectures.
  • The Magic of Big Capacity: Boosting Railroad Infrastructure ROI with Telecom Services PDF
    Infinera enables owners of optical fiber networks to significantly expand their capacity, offer new revenue generating services and match capital costs to capacity demand. Infinera's services include a full range of design, turnkey network upgrading and installation of equipment, remote management and on-demand switching on of pre-installed capacity. This white paper identifies some of the revenue opportunities available to holders of railroad rights-of-way.
  • A Comprehensive Approach to Multi-layer Transport Network Automation PDF
    Service providers continue to face staggering increases in bandwidth, driven primarily by video and cloud combined with increasingly competitive broadband and mobile access speeds. This growth requires ongoing CapEx investment in the network at both the IP/MPLS layer (Layer 3/2.5) and the OTN and DWDM transport layer (Layer 1/0) so that service providers can continue to deliver high quality network experiences to their customers. Wall Street, on the other hand, continues to demand strong financial performance with new revenues and flat or declining CapEx-to-revenue and OpEx-to-revenue ratios.
  • Optimizing Multi-Layer Networks with Transport SDN PDF
    The growth and evolution in traffic types and patterns over IP backbones is causing cable operators and service providers to reexamine the best ways to not only architect their IP and optical transport networks, but also the various ways to manage, orchestrate, and optimize multi-layer networks. The conventional approach is to place all networking functions solely within the IP router layer and to leverage the router vendor's embedded control plane protocols, and employing an optical network to essentially deliver static, dumb "pipes" to interconnect routers. With the recent emergence of SDN technology and its ability to decouple the control plane from the forwarding plane, resulting in direct, explicit control and programmability of packet flows, operators are now beginning to explore whether SDN has a role in improving the operations and economics of their multi-layer backbones and optimizing the performance of their packet networks. Furthermore, as Transport SDN begins to emerge for converged optical systems with integrated OTN/Packet switching, new options for deploying and managing multi-layer, multi-vendor networks emerge.
  • The Multi-layer Transport Network Opportunity PDF
    InfoneticsService providers survived the challenge of bandwidth growth in the face of constrained capex over the last decade, and they will continue to do so. The key ingredient for success is the continued willingness of these companies to adopt new vendors, equipment, and network architectures that keep dropping the cost per bit per kilometer in their networks while adding the features and services customers demand. Technologies like metro ROADM in the 2000s and coherent WDM today are good examples; IPoDWDM is not.
  • Better Network Economics with IPoOTN PDF
    It's a given that IP traffic is growing exponentially. All industry analysts and bodies agree on the tremendous surge of traffic - IEEE estimates a rate of more than 30% compounded annually. This is impacting the infrastructure that serves to transport it in different ways - the IEEE 802.3 Industry Connections report from 2012 outlined how the core network and server input/output links are reacting to this deluge. From the figure, it is evident that core network scaling is forcing service providers to have a wideranging discussion about how to best optimize, evolve and converge packet-optical networks in order to reduce the total network cost.
  • FastSMP™: Fast Shared Mesh Protection PDF
    Network resilience is a key requirement for 21st century service providers, as the ability of any system to recover from a failure is critical to meeting the customer expectation of 24 x 7 operations. The interdependence of business processes and the network, combined with an increasing number of natural disasters and manmade fiber cuts, has made the ability of the fiber infrastructure to quickly recover vital. Service providers are moving towards meshbased transport networks to provide more backup path options. To help take advantage of this architectural shift and deliver more reliable networks for lower cost, Infinera has developed a new capability called FastSMP™, extending standards-based Shared Mesh Protection. This technology leverages an intelligent GMPLS control plane so a meshed transport network can recover from multiple local and network-wide failures while lowering costs by avoiding the need to dedicate backup bandwidth for every active circuit. Infinera uses a purpose-built hardware acceleration chip included in every single card of the DTN-X, guaranteeing a sub 50ms recovery end-to-end across the network, even in the face of multiple failures.
  • The Evolving Economics of 100G Transport Networks PDF
    The bandwidth efficiency and relative costs for 100 Gb/s WDM transport and switching architectures are compared in North American and pan-European long-haul networks. The first architecture uses muxponders and ROADMs for end-to-end wavelength transport with no digital sub-wavelength grooming. The other two utilize digital OTN switching, as either a standalone OTN switch or a converged integrated WDM/switch system, to efficiently groom services onto WDM wavelengths. Results show the integrated WDM/switch architecture utilizes the fewest WDM wavelengths and client service interfaces, and an integrated WDM/switch architecture using photonic integrated circuit technology provides the lowest operational costs.
  • The Benefits of Photonic Integration in Next-Gen Transport & Switching Systems PDF
    For years, core networks received little attention while operators focused their investments on upgrading their metro core, aggregation and access networks to deal with IP traffic growth and new services on both the wireline and wireless side. Over the past couple years, however, we have seen a core network renaissance begin. With upgrades in metro and access networks complete, operators are finding that the core network has become the bottleneck. As operators invest in the next round of core networks, they will take advantage of the latest technologies available in order to squeeze the greatest efficiencies out of their finite bandwidth and to future-proof their networks against continued traffic growth. The first move in this direction is being seen as super-channel line card implementations beginning to address the emerging 100G market, and competing directly with non-integrated implementations of 100G.
  • Reach, Reliability and ROI: Building The Optimal Subsea Architecture PDF
    In 1872, Hans Christian Andersen was one of the first people to recognize that subsea networks were going to be big. He wrote a children's book to help educate the world about "the serpent beneath the sea." Since then, subsea networks have come a long way. Subsea operators, recognizing the mission critical nature of international communications, pride themselves on the ultra-reliability of their network and the ability of fiber optic cables to span the entire globe and bring all of us a little closer together. This paper will take a deeper look at subsea architecture, its evolution, recent technological advances and industry best practices that promise to dramatically improve return on investment.
  • Network Efficiency Quotient (EQ): Detailed EQ Results PDF
    As Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) scales to 100 Gb/s, 500 Gb/s and even 1 Tb/s super-channels, digital switching for bandwidth management becomes critical to deliver efficient transport networks. This paper examines four different architectural approaches to deploying digital OTN switching and introduces the Infinera Network EQ framework that provides the tools and methodology to measure efficiency and TCO. The results highlight the importance of evaluating the entire network topology and bandwidth growth across a number of years versus analysis focused on first-in capital expense (capex) costs in order to truly understand the capex and operational expense (opex) cost of network architecture choices.
  • Coherent DWDM Technologies PDF
    Network bandwidth is growing at staggering rates estimated to approximate 40% growth year over year driven by cloud, mobile, and video. Techniques to increase optical bandwidth cost efficiently through Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) have begun to get more complex and therefore more technically challenging to implement. This paper reviews the progress and techniques used to increase optical channel capacity from 2.5G to 100G and beyond with a particular focus on coherent transmission technologies, and stresses the importance of practical and robust implementations that deliver cost effective and highly reliable optical transport.
  • Evolving Your Data Center into the Cloud PDF
    Demand for cloud solutions is forcing changes in the traditional data center business model, to help survive in the new world.  The model of selling space and power must expand to accommodate the enterprise needs for more flexibility, ubiquity and most importantly bandwidth, otherwise the business will be lost to more sophisticated 'cloud operators' rather than data center owners.  This paper examines how Data Center Operators can efficiently capitalize on the new Cloud Business opportunity by enabling virtualized computing and storage along with virtualized bandwidth, to create both service flexibility and network and cost efficiency.
    With a foreword from OvumOVUM
  • Evolving Optical Transport Networks to 100G Lambdas and Beyond PDF
    The cable industry is beginning to migrate to 100G core optical transport waves, which greatly improve fiber utilization while lowering transponder count for equivalent transport bandwidth. However, transporting 100G waves requires complex optical modulation to preserve performance and increase spectral efficiency. These modulation methods require several additional discrete optical components per lambda, so the migration to 100G waves alone does not fully address the scalability issues of increasing cost, power, space, and heat as bandwidth requirements continue to grow.
  • Super-Channels: DWDM Transmission at 100Gb/s and Beyond PDF
    A number of different industry surveys indicate that total internet demand is growing at about 40% per year. This growth is driven mainly by increasing video traffic in the network—Netflix now takes up to 30% of the internet's bandwidth at peak hours, and new competitors like Amazon, Hulu, Youku, and the BBC iPlayer are growing rapidly. This growth is now further accelerated by mobile access, with video clients shipping on an all smart phones and tablets, enabling video to be consumed more conveniently via network connections anywhere, anytime.
  • An Update on Photonic Integration -- An ACG Market Impact Report PDF
    An ACG Market Impact Report
    ACG Research PICs look to be the future for high bit rate scaling at cost-effective price points. Intelligence can also be applied to a PIC based system by grooming services to operate as efficiently as possible, especially as we migrate to more control-plane centric transparent mesh topologies.
  • Infinera DTN-X Announcement -- An ACG Market Impact Report PDF
    ACG Research Based on over 150 awarded patents, Infinera is introducing the DTN-X with a "clean slate design." The DTN-X uses the 500G coherent technology Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) combined with large-scale OTN switching and grooming. The backplane supports 1 Tb/s/slot and is designed to support a multibay approach to larger configurations. This is the largest OTN/WDM switched transport product announced to date, and it will be available in the first half of 2012.
  • Infonetics Research PDF
    The Fast Approaching 100G Era
    Infonetics The way optical networks are built is fundamentally changing yet again. These once-a-decade transformations remake service provider network architectures, and in turn reshape the equipment supplier landscape that provides them.